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Riboswitches are regulatory elements transcribed RNA model. They respond to changes in PH, and temperature. A riboswitch consists of an element such as physical ligands which are bound together forming riboswitch binding site. ON the point binding to the ligand there is a confirmation switch connected to the riboswitch. The binding of a ligand to the riboswitch affects the expression of the gene directly connected to the riboswitch. And the gene product is responsible, for allowing the bacteria to respond to the ligand bound to the riboswitch. For example, if you have a ligand bound to a riboswitch and binding integration causes transformation changes in gene expression it will impact the expression of the linked chain which it gene products affects that ligand.

There are different regulatory outcomes and models that result when ligands bounds and dissociate from ribosomes. The first example shows the ribosome binding site located down. When the ligand binds, it causes transformation changes and ends up forming several structures, and in references to genetics, the structures formed will copy transformations, and termination gene products fall prematurely. If there is an operating frame the gene located in the DNA, it cannot transcribe that gene in the DNA model. In other words, the gene products won’t be synthesized because there are transcriptions formed on the DNA model. In the second example the ligand is not bound, so transcriptions are formed without the ligand. The riboswitches will affect the transcription of down changes. They affect translation. The ribosome binding site is facing different site thus it is not exposed for ligand binding. Hence there are no binding and ribosomes cannot translate. The functions of the ligand are therefore prevented. The ligand facilitates opening of the region allowing ribosomes to bind and translate. Riboswitches affect transcription in presence and absence of ligands.

There are millions of transcriptions and translation on a linked chain. The regulatory elements that only affects expansionary gene directly connected to the same riboswitch or DNA molecule are called cease regulatory elements. For example, in case there are two DNA molecules the expression of the gene is usually affected by the presence of regulator and promoter. The promoter is a cease regulatory element which only affects the gene linked to same DNA molecule. Riboswitches are found in a various number of packages such as Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) has similar functions to a co-factor. A cofactor is an organic or inorganic ion, or molecules required an active reaction. A riboswitch is responsive to the presence of FMN, in the absence of FMN, there is a determinator that forms between riboswitch and operating frame so that there can be continuous transcription and translation. In the presence of FMN, it binds to riboswitch, there is transformation changes and produces transcription terminators that prevent the transcription of genes to RNA model. The riboswitch simulates pathogens which are a form of infection pulses which causes mysterious infection. Riboflavin is an analog form of FMN which means that they are similar to each other Riboflavin has similar effects as FMN.

Transcriptional interference occurs when transcription from one stride prevent another transcription from happening the condition happens in the absence of enough methyl. In the presence of methyl, the riboswitch forms a transcription terminator, and there is no obstruction of production of genes sequences. There is a complete synthesis in the presence of methyl. The cells can sense the amount of substrate. Gene rearrangements are not similar to mutations. Gene rearrangement is a reversible process which is applied to bacteria during its development process.

RFID Technology in Library Management

Introduction
The proposed RFID technology in the library management involves the step by step implementation and development. The major operations and modules of the entire RFID system involve the iterative process that favors the quality and development of the desired system. The RFID technology in the library management is a dedicated system that requires development using the system development lifecycle approaches. The major areas and iterations within the development process involve the research design and the analysis procedures.

The Research World View
The RFID technology for the library management shall get implemented following the design science research methodology. The research shall incorporate the investigation of the artificial IT artifacts that intends to incorporate new ideas into the existing ideas (Singh, & Midha, 2008). The research shall compare and contrast different types of the design processes. The design procedures shall follow the specified objectives, aims, and goals as reflected in the literature reviews and the proposals. The research incorporates thorough investigation on:

Relevant artifacts like the constructs of the RFID applications technology in the library
The RFID models and structures implemented in the public and the institutionally based library systems,
The design science research shall also incorporate the findings concerning the implementation methods, instantiations as well as the combination of different modules of the RFID technology in the library.
The design science research shall give the evaluation and verification of the design artifacts to access the viability of the proposed project in solving the existing problems in the library systems (Singh, & Midha, 2008).

Research Design
The design research shall concentrate with the IT artifacts about the RFID technology implementation in the libraries. The research design shall deal with the construction of the library domain that includes the conceptualization of the end user specifications. The design shall focus on implementing a permanent solution to the existing problem within the scope and domain of the RFID technology in the library. The research design implements the science research design through designing the propositions and statements that explain the relationship between and among different constructs. The design process shall provide the step by step process to give the directives on the guidelines on algorithms applied in the development of the RFID systems. The research design takes into consideration the instantiation of the user interface design, the database design and the tools that address different aspects of designing information like the Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool. The deliverables in the design process shall include the use case diagrams, the data flow diagrams and the database relationship diagrams (Boucher, & Yalc?in, 2006).

Research Strategy
The design mentioned above process shall incorporate the implementation of the design science. The design strategy desires to generate new scholarly insight in the field of RFID technology. The strategy aims at ensuring that the development of the proposed RFID technology results to the quality system desired and specified by the end users. The research strategy shall apply two forms of research strategy namely the sequence of activities and the verification and evaluation of the created modules. The sequence of activities procedures shall incorporate the development of the innovative ideas and the creativity applied in the RFID library system. The evaluation and verification of the developed modules shall provide the feedback of the as well as generating new knowledge and progress of the problem under investigation (Boucher, & Yalc?in, 2006). The development strategies shall involve multiple iterations to ensure that the researcher gets satisfied in the process of researching and practicing. The research process shall take the principles of iterating the different modules and functionalities to facilitate production of the improved RFID system.

Proposed Method of Data Collection

The proposed methodology of data and information collection is specifically the qualitative research methodology. The methodology provides detailed information and data regarding the important benefits of implementing the RFID technology in the library services. The science research process has the clear presentation and provides fine preliminary analysis through collecting data and information based on case study. The case study approach of the data and information collection get considered best in the study involving social sciences. The case study strategy gives an in-depth investigation of the end users, the community, the groups and the events. The data and information get gathered from various sources through the use of observations, interviews, and the questionnaires. The analysis of the archived data and information shall get applied in the process of obtaining data and information for the primary and secondary comparison.

Unit of Analysis
The analysis process shall get based on the evolving research methods within a set of guidelines, principles and techniques within the research scope. The basic approaches and measures implemented in the process of data and information collections were involving the natural questions and answers sessions. The entire data and information analysis process shall involve the use grounded theory to determine the relationship and categories between and among the functionality modules. The unit of analysis techniques applied includes the theoretical sampling and the constant comparative methodologies (Boucher, & Yalc?in, 2006). The goal of the unit of analysis is the provision of the detailed theory that fits the real world as well as providing the empirical data that coincides with the end user specification and needs. The results of the analysis procedures shall get generalized based on the sampled individuals and groups. The outcome of the measured analyzed results will involve a substantial analysis and shall get involved in the development and implementation of the RFID library system.

Sample
The Parkland progressive public library is the proposed sample for implementing the research for the RFID technology in offering the library services. The library has well the elaborate history of using the different versions of the library technologies including the RFID technologies. The current library information system in the Parkland progressive public library implements RFID technology in active and real time basis (Bommel, 2005). The Parkland progressive public library is the most suitable sample for obtaining relevant qualitative data and information. The entire sampling process shall incorporate students and the general public who access the facilities and the services of the library. The parkland progressive public library is one of the civilized libraries in the world. The library gets specialized in the direct service delivery to the local students and the general public. The intended sample collection shall involve approximately 300 people selected randomly. The sampling shall also involve the library facilities that shall include 90 books picked randomly, 100 titles of periodicals selected from the existing inventory, the sample shall also include 50 maps and 100 microfilms and microfiches. The sampled objects and variables shall also include the 50 literature books selected from the catalog, 70 historical photos derived from the library archive as well as the 40 off prints selected from the browsed catalogs.

Proposed Method of Data Analysis
The collected data shall include the results of data and information obtained from the interviews, observations and the questionnaires. The interviewing process shall involve the application of the open – ended questions. The survey approach shall get involved to analyze the sampled data and information. The survey strategy shall use the special criteria to analyze the sampled information. The criteria shall involve setting up data and information in the archival form based on the user specifications; the problems got solved as well as the needs satisfaction (Chiang et al… 2009). The following categories of data shall get implemented in the process of data and information analysis.

The applications, implementation and usage of RFID technology in the library
The tangible and intangible cost of implementing, maintaining and installing the RFID technology
The security measures involved in the implementation of the RFID technology in library
The functionality guarantee on the counting and inventory maintenance using the RFID technology in library
The search and find procedures applied in accessing the facilities and services of the library system, for example, searching for books
Conclusion

The proposed RFID technology in the library management shall get implemented through following the suggested design for developing design according to the user specifications and needs. The design procedures shall follow the suggested design science research approaches to ensure that quality and the right RFID system get presented to the end users.

Whistleblowing and Sarbanes-Oxley

Key characteristics of a whistleblower
The verb whistle-blowing refers to revealing the hidden actions of another individual or groups of people (mostly executives) of a company for wrong actions they perpetrate in the dark. A whistleblower is thus any person who exposes any information regarding illegal activity dishonesty, or correct activities within an organization. In many cases, whistleblowers are employees or ex-employee of a company (Green, 2004).. Among the essential characteristics of whistleblowers is that they are altruistically motivated. They do their actions to expose the truth so that a person suffering unfairly may get saved. Secondly, they are utilitarian. They serve to be useful rather than attractive. Thirdly, they are not interested in altering their behavior. They do what they do because they believe it’s the appropriate course. They, therefore, allow their attitudes and beliefs to drive them. In many cases, whistleblowers are well educated as only people with such wisdom can manage what they do. They are also aware that what they do is prone to danger and severe retaliation (Green, 2004).

Instance of whistleblowing
On the 11th of March 2016, two former students of Bard College revealed that the college officials were violating the False Claims Act that regards the federal grants and that which stipulates the use of Title IV student aid funds. These two whistleblowers had researched and found that Bard has for long received funds through the Teacher Quality Partnership Grant Program though they the college has not yet complied with the conditions of such grant. Bard was also allegedly reported to be awarding, disbursing and receiving Title IV student loan funds at campus locations though such were not yet recognized. They also did so without providing notice of the locations to the Department of Education. Such actions showed an infringement of applicable regulations and agreement with the Department of Education. The case is still not solved and until the Court decides the fate of the culprits, the effect of the whistle-blowing to the whistleblower and the institution’s heads may not be determined. However, the prospective effects might be the jailing or fining of the Bard College heads. More so, the court might decide to demote them. The whistleblower might face threats from those persons that they exposed (Newman 2016).

Justification of the whistleblowers’ reporting

In any case, the actions of the whistleblowers were justified. Any publically traded company or any government institution represents is there to serve the people rather than inflict pain or take the public’s money without their consent. The government takes a lot of taxes from the public which it uses to pay for the services of workers of public institutions. It is thus wrong for these few individuals to grab or siphon the money once more from the public funds. As a matter of facts, it’s only the whistleblowers who might find out such actions as perpetrators do it hidden. Their actions were thus justified as they saved the public from continued fraudulence (Green, 2004).

Extent to which the whistleblower would be protected under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was developed and passed by the U.S. Congress to guard shareholders as well as the general public from such things like accounting errors and fraudulent practices. It was also aimed at improving the accuracy of commercial disclosures (Green, 2004). Section 806 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act would protect the whistleblowers against harm by the Bard’s heads for providing information about financial fraud. However, the two had to show that an actual violation occurred. It would then protect them against retaliatory actions such as threats or discrimination.