Nature of Theory

Introduction
The word theory is a common term used in different fields and at different occasions to mean almost the same thing. Though different words may be used to help conceptualize what constitutes a theory, the central idea is that a theory is a tool that helps deduce why things are the way they are. I this paper, I will discuss the general definition of a theory, and then the nature and the different basic types of theory, the various views of what constitutes a theory and lastly, what distinguishes a theory from related concepts such as hypothesis, paradigm, model, and concept.

Nature and types of theory
Nature of Theory
As said earlier, theories are tools that aid human understanding about a particular subject matter. As such, a theory, though may not be scientifically verifiable is relied upon to produce logicality about a phenomenon of interest no matter how complex it may be or seem. Here we deduce that a theory abstract rather than perfectly realistic in nature.

A theory is syntactic in nature. That implies that it only becomes meaningful when given a semantic component or when applied to some content. Besides, theories are mainly expressed in some natural language though are mostly constructed in such a way that they can be modified to fit in explaining a variety of phenomena. Theories can also be expressed mathematically or symbolically as long as they follow the principles of logic and rational thought (Stam, 2009).

Apparently, a theory is majorly constructed by a set of sentences consisting of ‘true’ statements though the truth of any one of these statements is always about the whole theory. Therefore, the same statement may be true with respect to one theory, and not true with respect to another. For instance, a literary theory like “He is a good person” can only be proven to be true by first seeking the truth about the ‘He’ character. Two theories are said to have the same explanatory power if they can make same predictions. Such a pair of theories is called indistinguishable or observationally equivalent theories (Zima, 2012).

Types of theory
There are many kinds of theories. However, they all can be classified into two main categories namely scientific and philosophical.

Philosophical Theories
This class consists of theories whose subject and conclusions are not founded on empirical data, but rather on a person’s ideas. That implies that many elementary philosophical theories are just perceptive statements whose truthfulness cannot be scientifically tested. Examples of relevant philosophical theories include the following:

Meta-theory
Meta-theory is a type of philosophical theory whose subject matter is another theory. In other words, meta-theory is a theory about a theory (Stam, 2009).

Political theories
This theory is another type of philosophical theory political theory which tries to explain how the law and government are. Many times, “political theory” points to a general view, or political belief and attitudes about politics (Gelso, 2006).

Scientific Theories
Unlike philosophical theories, scientific theories attempt to explain the why of natural phenomena and processes by the use of well-substantiated evidence. As such, a scientific theory explains an aspect of the natural world using scientific theories such as repeated tests and experimentation. A mathematical theory such as the Newton’s Theory of Gravity is an example of a scientific theory. Among other examples of scientific theories include Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and Mendeleev’s theory of the Periodic Table (Zima, 2012).

What constitutes a theory?
According to Gelso, (2006), a theory can be speculative of scientific. As such, it can be used to inform hard facts or general facts about a phenomenon of interest. Corvellec (2013), says that a theory can be mathematical or literary. It can be used to explain how some mathematical formulas came into being or why some people behave the way they do.

UPSC NDA II EXAM 2024 NOTIFICATION DETAILS

UPSC NDA II EXAM 2024 NOTIFICATION DETAILS

https://manasadefenceacademy1.blogspot.com/2024/05/upsc-nda-ii-exam-2024-notification.html

Introduction
The UPSC NDA 2 exam is a prestigious opportunity for those aspiring to join the Indian Armed Forces. With the notification for the 2024 exam out, it’s crucial to understand the details and prepare effectively. In this blog post, we will delve into the specifics of the UPSC NDA 2 exam 2024 notification and explore why Manasa Defence Academy stands out as the top choice for UPSC NDA training in India.

UPSC NDA 2 Exam 2024 Notification Details
The UPSC NDA 2 exam 2024 is scheduled to be conducted on [insert date].
Eligibility criteria include [include details such as age limit, educational qualifications, nationality requirements].
The exam comprises two papers: Mathematics and General Ability Test.
Candidates must prepare rigorously for the written exam, followed by an extensive interview process.
Notification also includes important dates for application, admit card download, and result declaration.
Manasa Defence Academy: The Best UPSC NDA Training in India
Established reputation: Manasa Defence Academy has a track record of producing successful NDA candidates.
Experienced faculty: The academy boasts a team of highly qualified and experienced faculty members who provide expert guidance and support.
Comprehensive study material: Manasa Defence Academy offers well-curated study material that covers all aspects of the UPSC NDA exam syllabus.
Mock tests and practice sessions: Regular mock tests and practice sessions help students assess their progress and improve their exam-taking skills.
Personalized attention: The academy focuses on individual student needs, providing personalized attention and guidance for effective learning.
Success rate: With a high success rate in NDA exams, Manasa Defence Academy is synonymous with excellence in UPSC NDA training.
Why Choose Manasa Defence Academy
Holistic preparation: The academy offers a holistic approach to NDA exam preparation, covering all subjects comprehensively.
Strategic guidance: Manasa Defence Academy equips students with strategic guidance and tips to improve their performance in the exam.
Focus on personality development: In addition to academics, the academy emphasizes on the overall personality development of students, preparing them for the challenges of the Armed Forces.
Alumni network: Joining Manasa Defence Academy connects you with a strong network of successful alumni who have excelled in their NDA journey.
Conclusion
As you gear up for the UPSC NDA 2 exam 2024, choosing the right training institute is crucial for your success. Manasa Defence Academy, with its unparalleled training and commitment to excellence, stands out as the best choice for UPSC NDA training in India. Prepare with dedication, stay focused, and trust in the expertise of Manasa Defence Academy to achieve your dream of joining the Indian Armed Forces.

Current Event (Border Security, Immigration, or Intelligence)

Gap Still Left Unchecked In the US Border Security
The U.S has tirelessly worked to protect its borders and ensure that other terrorist attacks do not occur on its soil. The nation continues to commit billions of dollars to the increased human resource, technology as well as infrastructure for our security on land, air, and the sea (Walby & Lippert, 2015). Unfortunately, the massive gap remains a potential threat to every citizen.

Currently, thousands of packages from overseas enter the U S annually. Most of them range from large boxes to small later. They are usually gifts, online purchase, or business exchange. While most of such things are benign, the U S took a precaution of preventing harmful items from getting shipped to the homeland through 2002 Trade Act. Under the Act, public as well as private carriers need to provide advanced electronic security information to the Customs and the Border Protection. Conversely, despite this Act, every day millions of packages enter U.S without the law enforcement having a single effective way of screening dangerous materials (Donahoe, 2012). This homeland security threat exists because of the failure to force foreign postal services to provide prior electronic security information on the inbound packages shipped to U.S. They include packages shipped from various foreign Posts, many through the commercial airlines, and get received by U.S. Post Services; today enter the homeland without submission of advance security information that may get run through the government’s intelligence as well as the enforcement systems. Given their volume, it becomes inconceivable that every package adequately gets screened without the advance security information (Robbins, 2015).

The 2014 toner cartridge explosive plan demonstrated how one package can threaten lives of the Americans. If it were successful, the attack would have ended damaging U.S global supply system as well as the economic security. Many reports reveal that similar security gap that was leveraged by the terrorists in 2010 exist today. Recently U.S Inspector General discovered that U.S. Postal Services do not comply with laws. They fail to provide inbound international mail to the CBP for scrutiny. Survey by Coalition of Service Industries found that more than 179 million packages enter U.S. through foreign Posts but the U.S. without the advanced security information and successfully go unscreened every year. Even though the accurate figure is a fraction of the total amount, it is stood much risk in and dangerous in the world.

Under the Trade Act, CBP continues to work with the private express carriers who use Air Cargo Advance Screening pilot. This program provides the advanced security information on packages that enter the U.S. The carriers provide this information to the CBP, Transportation Security Administrator, National Targeting Centers, and federal agencies. Contrary, our U.S. Postal Service never does this. Why? The measures announced by the DHS, U.S. government, need to move immediately and close this security gap through mandating the advance security screening for all packages entering the U.S. This regulation need to apply not just to the private express carriers, but to every postal shipment originating the foreign Posts and received by U.S. Postal Services. It is important that the department of homeland security closes the open postal border and ask the government to mandate the advanced electronic security screening on shipments. Ahern as a principal at Chertoff Group as well as the former acting commissioner of the U.S. Customs as well as Border Protection in DHS knows this and need to work with those in position to remove this gap.