Ethics and Corporate Responsibility in the Workplace and the World

1: Describe the key characteristics of a stakeholder and determine all the stakeholders within the PharmaCARE scenario.

Stakeholders of a typical organization might include employees, customers, investors, suppliers, and managers (Phillips, 2003). There are several characteristics of a stakeholder of a company, among which include the following. First is that a stakeholder characteristic of a stakeholder is that he/she in one way or the other funds the organization through investing in it. He/she is thus affected by the outcomes or results of the company’s progress or the success or failures of the organization’s projects. Another key characteristic of a stakeholder is that he/she is in the company’s chain of accountability. Decisions made by the company’s officials may affect them directly or indirectly (Phillips, 2003). He/she is also responsible for the company’s good name. He/she is thus responsible for maintaining the company’s good reputation. Among the stakeholders of the PharmaCARE are the CEO, rest of the PharmaCARE’s executives and its Shareholders/stockholders of the enterprise. Others include the healers of the company in Colberia, the Colberians that work for PharmaCARE, the state government of New Jersey, the US Federal government and the communities affected by the lobbying of PharmaCARE.

The following is a justification of why some of the agencies or groups are considered stakeholders of PharmaCARE. One example is the state government in New Jersey. This is a stakeholder since its interested with PharmaCARE describing the state laws are regulations that PharmaCARE is required to comply with, e.g. paying taxes. Similarly, the federal government relates in the same way with PharmaCARE.The healers in Colberia can be considered close stakeholders with PharmaCARE since the facility obtains local remedies from them and possibly markets them. PharmaCARE has also been involved actively in lobbying against many environmental laws. This action has in many ways adversely affected the environment of the United States. It is from this perspective that every citizen of the United States and the federal government of the US become stakeholders of PharmaCARE (Phillips, 2003).

Q2: Analyze the human rights issues presented by PharmaCARE’s treatment of the Colberia’s indigenous population versus that of its executives. Recommend at least three (3) changes PharmaCARE can make to be more ethical going forward.

Various human rights issues arise as regards the running of corporations in the world. It has been determined that many corporations today are expanding their business enterprises. However, they are doing so by erecting branches at less regulated poorer countries where they have the power and audacity of violating human rights in many ways such as polluting the environment through harmful emissions and cutting down trees (Ingulli, 2010). To aggravate the situation, they do so with the cooperation of that countries government, by bribing the top officials. In any case, these corporations’ branches are set up businesses places where the local indigenous people are poor and living in less than standard conditions. The corporations will thus earn labor from less resistance indigenous people who they pay meager wages, another violation of human rights.

An assessment of PharmaCARE case shows prudently that the human rights of the people of Colberia’s have been violated, as regards the United Nations stipulation. This UN disclaimer applied, in this case, says that Transnational Corporations, as well as business Enterprises, have a general obligation to the indigenous people of Colberia. Along with it is the right to equal opportunity and non-discriminatory treatment of the local people (Brenker, 2010). In black and white, it’s evident that PharmaCARE has exploited the people of Colberia in the bid to further its own agenda. For instance, they have taken advantage of the local healers who have been lured into sharing their knowledge about indigenous cures just for free. In another dimension, the workers are reported to be paid meager wages ($1 per day), which make them live in substandard conditions as compared to PharmCARE staff who live lavishly at the expense of local people. These poor people reside in huts which have neither electricity nor clean water. Conversely, their ‘employers’ the executives of PharmaCARE, are living luxuriously in compounds which have access to all essential amenities requires to live a good life and added prestigious amenities such as swimming pools, golf course, and tennis courts (Cory, 2001).

Going forward, I would recommend that PharmaCARE provides transportation means for the benefit of workers. These transportation means will help workers who live far from the premises and also aid in bringing harvested goods from the jungle to the processing area of the organization. That will increase efficiency and remove the burden and tire/exhaustion of employees. Secondly, I recommend that PharmaCARE increases the wages workers. Rather than a dollar per day, it’s ethical that they pay them the same amount hourly. That will help them better their living standards. Lastly, I would recommend that PharmCARE involves itself with corporate social responsibility. For instance, they could reinvest a little of their profits in enhancing Colberia’s current infrastructure. They could also create housing for the workers within the manufacturing plant to better their lives as some may never be able to erect better housing (Brenker, 2010).

Q3: Assess PharmCARE’s environmental initiative against the backdrop of its anti-environmental lobbying efforts and Colberian activities. Support the position

PharmaCARE instigated an initiative by the name We CARE about YOUR world®. This initiative pledges PharmaCARE commitment to the environment but ironically, the company’s lobbying efforts have successfully demeaned the environmental laws and regulations and that of the Superfund tax by CERCLA (Ingulli, 2010). This law imposed heavy taxes and fines on chemical and petroleum firms particularly those that release hazardous substances that jeopardize people and environmental health (Cory, 2001)Apparently, the activities of PharmaCARE in Colberia are seen to contradict their initiative staunchly. We CARE about YOUR world®. Obviously, the company does not care about Colberia and its people. The company distorts the previously fresh environmental and deplorably treats Colberian people. As a matter of fact, PharmaCARE has done nothing good for the benefit of the indigenous people. It has taken advantage of them without caring.

Q4: Decide whether or not PharmaCARE’s actions with respect to the indigenous people of Colberia would be ethical in accordance with each of the following ethical theories:

Utilitarianism
As defined by Shapiro (2011) as a normative ethical theory that distinguishes the right from the wrong solely by judging from the outcomes (consequences). Under this theory, PharmCARE’s activities are not ethical. If so, PharmaCARE actions would have caused happiness to the local people. However, dread is what Colberians suffer.

Deontology
This theory obligates people to do as it obligates them when faced with an ethical dilemma. As such, a person ought to follow his/her obligation to another individual as doing this is what is considered ethically correct (Rainbow, 2002). Following this theory, PharmaCARE actions to the Colberia’s indigenous people cannot be regarded as morally right. The company exploits the indigenous people by paying them meager wages making them lead substandard lives (Cory, 2001).

Virtue Ethics
Virtue ethics are those actions that one does for the good of another by following his/her instincts rather than laws, customs or culture. PharmaCARE officials are short of these virtues and as such, their actions are not ethically correct. Executives have no mercy to the poor people and does nothing keep them motivated for the job. They treat the employees like slaves. Lack of virtual ethics denies the company to be ranked an ethically run organization.

Ethics of care
Ethics of care requires that both parties in play gain something from common activities. However, PharmCARE takes advantage of everything to profit themselves (Brenker, 2010). Indigenous people sacrifice their efforts but end up on the losing side. They earn low wages, and their environment is destroyed (Cory, 2001).

My own moral/ethical compass

After examining the case, I am of the free opinion that PharmaCARE violates the civil rights of the people. They have taken the environment into their hands and made people their working objects. They have no respect for human life and expose them to danger through polluting the environment. They pay meager dues to these people just they are poor and have no power to demand fairness. PharmCARE has to reconsider their CRS status. The executives should understand that caring for the employees is for the best of it too. Employees are like engines of the company and motivating them is the same as re-energizing the engine which makes the vehicle move more swiftly to accomplish the desires of the owner (Brenker, 2010).

Q5: Compare PharmaCARE’s actions with those of at least one (1) real-world company, whose corporate activities led to ethical, environmental, or workplace safety issues and financial loss. Analyze the similarities and differences between PharmaCARE and the company that you chose.

The activities of PharmCARE are likened to those of British Petroleum Company BP sometimes back. British Petroleum was involved in a serious issue which involved spillage of over 30 gallons of crude oil, a situation that has come to be known as the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. In this case scenario, 11 lives were lost and some injured. The company had at the time not installed a back-up acoustic switch claiming that it was not cost-effective at the time. The oil spillage made the environment dangerous as people lived in fear of explosions. More so, the environment was polluted. Apparently, poor people had no means to pull out of the area, and BP did nothing about it. The same case applies to PharmaCARE scenario. They built a large manufacturing plant in Africa took away the land, polluted the environment and exploited the indigenous people just because they were poor, desperate and short of knowledge of their human rights. They work for a large company but under dangerous conditions. They work long hours yet receive unfair wages. They, however, are not aware of ways to demand their rights. Similarly, the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill led to the damage of countless miles of shoreline which made fishing impossible. Fish processors had to shut down meaning that the local people were left without means of securing the daily bread (Rainbow, 2002).

British Petroleum redesigned its corporate insignia of going green that suggested that “the company was looking past oil and gas toward an eco-friendly future of renewable energy.” That is just similar with what PharmaCARE initiated through erecting a logo which said “WE CARE about YOUR health®. These two logos of the two companies stated that they wanted to change and in future enjoy the reputation as caring, ethical and well-run companies through producing high-quality products that save lives and through environmental friendly ways (Ingulli, 2010). Comparing BP and PharmaCARE, it can be found that both ended up devolved into unethical practices. BP, for instance, failed to acquire equipment that would have doubled safety for the oil rig. Instead, BP officials claimed they did not need such equipment. They claimed that the cost of it was too much and following the fact that this was not a required by the government, they did not purchase it. The same case applies to PharmaCARE, which does not want to feel the cost of social responsibility. They use their large company status to acquire land in Africa to set up a plant at the expense of the little power of the indigenous people.

Tablets in the Classroom

Introduction
Technology advancements and developments have led to the increase of computer and tablet’s capabilities in organizations. These capabilities include corporate communication, data creation, storage, modification and transfer in organizations, security control, research, passing commands to automated equipment, and monitoring of operations and processes. These technology advancements have in the recent years found a way to learning institutions, and specifically tablets in classrooms where they get used for education purposes such as research, communication, and training. The application of tablets in the classroom provides a broad range of advantages and at the same time gets faced with several disadvantages.

Research
Advances in technology continue to have a significant effect on the fabric of present-day society, through transformations in the method of education, communication, and socialization. One great innovation and technology is the use of tablets in schools for education purposes. Zhang, et. al. (2015), states that there has been a huge and rapid expansion of tablets use especially in schools and households. A tablet that is a common term shortened for a tablet computer gets described as a mobile personal computer that has a touchscreen display, battery, and circuitry all installed in one. Simply, it’s an entirely functional laptop that has a touch sensitive screen (Van Orden, 2006). The touch sensitive screen swivels to enable the computer to get applied alternately as a laptop or a tablet notebook. The tablet enables a user to interact with the computer just in a similar way as they would interact with a pen and a notebook (Dickerson, et. al. 2009). Tablet PCs incorporate digitizing technology that enables the user to make use of the device using a digital pen instead of a mouse to navigate or a keyboard to type. Data, entry in tablets, is possible through typing using a digital or integrated keyboard and is usually faster than Personal Digital Assistant.

The characteristics of teaching and learning using tablets include dynamic documents, interactive textbook, lecture capture, drawing, digital note taking, interactive teaching, and collaboration (Gubacs-Collins, & Juniu, 2009). Tablets have three main features that are most relevant in the physical education sector namely, voice recognition, digital ink, and handwriting recognition (Gubacs-Collins & Juniu, 2009). Both laptops and tablets can provide Internet connectivity to students, hence allowing them to communicate and access emails, and also allow students to take and access lecture notes electronically.

Tablets in classrooms provide have several functionalities and capabilities. First, tablets can get used in training and tutoring of difficult subjects such as Mathematics, where they become more enjoyable and understandable to students using visuals and animations. Studies show that the integration of Mathematics apps in training Mathematics has led to improved performance in the subject (Zhang, et. al. 2015). These Mathematics apps also assist in closing the gap between struggling and typical students in the subject through enhancing instruction (Ellington, Wilson, & Nugent, 2011). Multimedia technologies, audio texts, and graphics that have got enabled through the use of tablets in classrooms have aided in vocabulary learning in language learning courses (Arikana & Ozenb, 2015). Students can easily work and collaborate with fellow students or the teacher to improve language fluency and knowledge in an environment enabled by tablets. E-learning has also become possible, as mobile service in class that gets provided by tablets has the capability of allowing an individual to attend via distance learning environment. It has enabled teachers and students to use the tablet features such as many limitless pages as possible, and various kinds of inks without erasing (Aksu, 2014). These pages are later shared with the students and teachers easily and at free costs as there are no costs of publishing, paper, distribution or usage. There are also not heavy as they are a reduce load to the students. The student learned content in class can also get assessed in a much easier and faster way in classrooms through the use of tablets (Enriquez, 2010). Tablets in classrooms also allow early childhood teachers to document the progress of child’s learning by taking photos, recording or even take a video. These forms of documents then get availed to the parent through messaging, daily blogs or online portfolios (Parnell & Bartlett, 2012). These methods allow teachers and parents to monitor child’s progress and identify weaknesses that need to get improved.

Mobile technology offers versatility and high adaptability for many learning styles and preferences as compare standard lecture and discussions in schools (Rossing, et. al. 2012). The use of tablets in classrooms allows the updating of students’ course materials and give assignments via SMS, and any other forms of alerts and updates. This aspect has got enabled through technological improvement of communication channels, hence improving mobile learning in further education (Fabian, & MacLean, 2014). Tablets use in classrooms has cemented a student-directed approach to writing instruction and at the same time assisting an inclusive classroom (Sullivan, 2013). The students can guide their writing process through the access of the electronic information resources, learning management system, and online text editor. When learning using tablets, it is easy to illustrate examples of certain topics.

Advantages of using tablets
There is increased interactivity in school work, through the use of tablets as it allows frequent communication, provides a platform for teacher- student discussion, and teachers easily receive student’s feedback. Tablets utilization in classrooms provides a critical opportunity for mobile learning, that encourages learning anywhere and anytime (Fabian, & MacLean, 2014). It can reach undeserving children who are unable to attend physical classes because of a particular reason. Through the use of tablets in classrooms has enhanced 21st-century social interactions, allowed for fitting with learning environments, and also the enabling of personalized learning experience.

The capability of tablets to illustrate learning at any time of a lesson increases the student understanding and know-how of a concept. Particularly the sciences and engineering, students can easily understand how machines work and the processes involved in the development of devices by researching on the internet (Rogers, & Cox, 2008). Mobility and digital ink characteristics available in a tablet, enhance the spontaneity in the process of learning. This aspect is possible because they provide information in a highly interactive as well as visual way instead of traditional methods such as a predetermined lecture or instruction that gets presented as a PowerPoint slideshow.

The increase in the use of tablets in schools would be vital in minimizing the rate of computer illiteracy in the society. The tablet functions similarly to a computer hence one can learn basic skills of using computers such as generating documents. Gubacs-Collins, & Juniu, (2009), in their study of the role played by tablet PCs as tools for teaching, identified that tablets benefited teachers by facilitating several functions, such as digital note-taking, annotation of presentation materials, and the markup of student assignments and projects. The use of tablet PCs also improved the attention of students in class and their comprehension and understanding of the course material.

Disadvantages of using tablets

The functionality of the various applications installed in tablets lags behind the software written for use in personal computers. For instance, the capability to create, modify and generate documents through the use of word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software, is less advanced in tablets that in personal computers (Mang & Wardley, 2013). Other challenges facing the use of tablets in schools for learning include low internet access, inequality in technology access, and the blocking and filtering of certain websites by the school authority (Heejung, 2014). The use of tablets in schools also calls for training of more teachers in how to operate and teach using tablets. Tablets are also prone to damage if not properly handled especially at elementary levels due to their fragile nature.

Training to be a Dot Net Programmer

Plan

The marketing of myself as a Dot Net Programmer in the job market would entail attention interviews, coming up with a resume and then creating a professional brand. I planned to conduct a search for various publications so as to have a knowhow on how to adequately prepare for the interview. The researcher also planned to leverage two resource persons for the purpose of helping to shed more light to the tasks at hand more especially the task of making a professional brand and preparing for the interview. My plan involved going through various resumes on the Internet and other sources so as to familiarize myself with the major components in containment I a professional resume as that would be helpful during the application for a job in the future. A good personal brand and resume are necessary for winning an employment (Corfield, 2007). I then planned to make sure that the sample had a professional outlook.

I also planned to recap all that I had learned in the previous research tasks towards the area of Dot Net programming so as to make sure that all the knowledge of duties and responsibilities was at my fingertips. I planned to understand the basic tasks and how to carry them out since they would interview me. The other things that the researcher planned to do were to make sure to practice such soft skills as teamwork and collaboration; communication skills; problem solving; critical observation; adaptability; and conflict resolution. The researcher also planned to carry out a search on the newspapers and other platforms that advertise Dot Net programming jobs, make applications and then attend interviews. The attending of interviews would be preceded by a thorough preparation on the same using my resource persons and the other sources.

Action
On March 25, 2016, I began my search on marketing myself as a Dot Net developer for the purpose of getting a suitable employment. The researcher structured the research work in such a way that all the activities would have completion within two weeks that were scheduled for the same. In the first week, I had to make a recap of all that I had learned in the previous research activities concerning Dot Net programming. In the first week I also attending an online training for two days, that is, March 28, 2016, and March 29, 2016, and got to learn many things regarding the such soft skills like good communication, adaptability, conflict resolution, problem-solving, teamwork and collaboration among other skills. I also made a plan for the following week concerning the tasks that I wanted to accomplish in that week so as to prepare adequately for them.

The task that began within the second week was the scrutiny of the sample resumes on the Web so as to familiarize myself with the right structure and the elements that should be in containment. I requested to meet two of my resource person that was working in two different companies in the positions of the assistant human resource managers. I met the resource persons at the same time because I wanted them to help me in different activities that would have me adequately prepared for the interview and the job ahead. The meeting took place in one of the resource person’s offices in the afternoon starting at 2 pm because thy told me that in the morning, they were usually busy. They helped me to prepare for the interview and assisted me with the refining of the resume so that it had a professional look. They then helped me to come up with a professional brand.

Observation
I observed that the preparation for the interview and job was something important. In this iteration, I had to carry out some activities that helped me have adequate preparation for the activities mentioned above. I observed that the revisiting of the things I learned in the previous iterations was vital because it made me remembers everything that I had learned. That gave me the confidence to approach the interview with the assurance that I would pass it. The other thing that the researcher observed was that the practice of soft skills is a requirement for any employee because they have to be conversant with the basic of how to communicate and behave apart from their professional qualifications (Duncan & Dunifon, 2012). The daily conducting of their duties require those soft skills. Otherwise, they would become ineffective in the execution of their duties.

The researcher also observed that the interview must be preceded by adequate preparation and the preparation of the resume as well as the training of how to perform a task related to one’s profession. I observed that the interviewers have some common questions that they ask a new employee and the resource persons helped understand how to respond to them adequately. The most common question, for instance, was, ‘If we give you chance to work in this company, what new idea you will bring to the area of Dot Net project development?’ The professional brand was a requirement for making sure that a job seeker reaches many people (Dixson & Arruda, 2013). I observed that an online profile of the professional brand would help in marketing oneself effectively, and it would provide the chance for making changes as appropriate.

Reflection
The iteration on marketing myself as Dot Net programmer went on well in almost every area that I wanted to address. I addressed most of them although not as adequate as I would have wanted. The various sources that I leverage to find information regarding interviews and practice of other skills were very rich with relevant information that I wanted. The online training on the practice of soft skills also helped me to have all the soft skills that are my requirement for any professional. The resource persons were also helpful because they complemented what I had gathered from the Web and other sources, ensuring that I was well versed in all the things that are vital to getting and maintaining employment. I met them during the time when they were not very busy, and so they willingly gave me the information I wanted to get from them.

A few things did not go as was planned among them being the lack of covering everything that was in my pan for this iteration. Among the things that were planned and never happened include the use of sources like newspapers to find job advertisements and the failure to scrutinize thoroughly the various job offerings advertised on the Internet. I plan to create more time for the activities in my plan in the future so as to make sure that I perform every activity as planned for the purpose of garnering more knowledge and experience in the area I will be conducting research. Another thing that I did not do was the visiting of companies to take my resume and applications as I only relied on the job offerings on the Web. In the future, I would have to apply online and also visit companies to seek for a job.